As India moves towards becoming a more equitable society, understanding the term EBC is becoming increasingly important. This article explores the concept of EBC and looks at how it is helping to bridge economic divides in India. Read on to find out exactly what the EBC full form stands for, and how it is impacting lives across the country!
What is the EBC Full Form?
The EBC full form, therefore, stands for “Economically Backward Classes”. This term is used to describe those social groups which have been traditionally disadvantaged in terms of economic and social indicators. The Constitution of India provides for affirmative action in favour of these groups through reservations in educational institutions and government jobs.
The term ‘Economically Backward Classes’ (EBC) was first used in the Constitution (Article 15(4)) of India. It denotes a socially and economically disadvantaged group of people who are not adequately represented in government jobs and educational institutions. The Constitution provides for special measures to be taken for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward class of citizens or for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. In order to identify the EBC, various criteria such as caste, creed, religion or language can be used.
In 1991, the Mandal Commission was set up by the Government of India to examine the socio-economic status of backward classes and to recommend measures for their upliftment. The Commission identified 52% of India’s population as belonging to the Other Backward Classes (OBCs). based on its own criteria, which included economic, social and educational indicators. The Mandal Commission report was accepted by Prime Minister V. P. Singh in 1990, but it was opposed by several political parties and organisations. After much debate, Parliament passed the Constitution (Ninety-third Amendment) Act, 2005 which inserted a new Clause (5A) in Article 15 enabling reservations for OBCs in admission to higher educational institutions whether aided or unaided by the State.
In 2006, another commission headed by Justice Ranganath Mishra was set up to identify religious and linguistic minorities who were Socially Educationally Backward Classes (
History of EBC in India
The term “economically backward classes” (EBCs) was first used in the Constitution of India, under Article 15(4), to refer to those citizens who are not adequately represented in public services. The concept of EBCs has been further elaborated in the Presidential Orders issued from time to time for providing reservations in educational institutions and government jobs.
The first such order was issued in 1961, which identified 101 castes as EBCs. This list was revised in 1986, 1993 and 1999. As per the latest order issued in 2018, there are now 127 EBCs in India.
The concept of EBCs is different from that of other backward classes (OBCs). While OBCs are defined on the basis of caste, EBCs are defined purely on economic criteria. This means that any citizen belonging to an EBC can avail of the benefits and reservations meant for them, irrespective of their caste.
The reservation for EBCs was initially introduced for a period of 10 years, but has since been extended indefinitely. Currently, 27% of seats in government jobs and educational institutions are reserved for EBC candidates.
Eligibility Criteria to be Considered as an EBC
In order to be considered an Economically Backward Class (EBC), there are certain criteria that must be met. These include:
- Annual family income must be below Rs. 8 lakhs
- Family assets must be below Rs. 5 lakhs
- The family must not own more than 1 hectare of land
- The family must not have a vehicle in their name
Furthermore, the family’s economic condition must not have improved over the last 3 years in order for them to still be considered EBC.
Benefits Available to EBC in India
There are a number of benefits available to Economically Backward Classes (EBCs) in India. These include reservation in educational institutions and government jobs, as well as financial assistance for various schemes such as housing, loans, and scholarships.
The Indian government has taken a number of measures to help EBCs improve their socio-economic status. In 2013, the government introduced the 10% quota for EBCs in educational institutions. This was followed by the launch of the Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY) in 2014, which aimed to provide financial inclusion for all EBC households. The government has also implemented various schemes to provide financial assistance to EBC families, such as the Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY) and the Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana (PMMY).
Challenges Faced by EBC
There are a number of challenges faced by economically backward classes (EBCs) in India. Firstly, EBCs are often socio-economically marginalized and face discrimination from other social groups. This can lead to exclusion from essential services and opportunities, as well as reduced access to education and employment. Additionally, EBCs often live in rural and remote areas with limited infrastructure and resources. This can make it difficult for them to access essential services or participate in the economy. Finally, EBCs often lack financial resources and have limited access to credit. This can limit their ability to start businesses or invest in their education and future.
How to Apply for EBC Status in India
In order to apply for Economically Backward Classes (EBC) status in India, the applicant must first be a citizen of India. The applicant must then submit an application to the Central Government Office for EBC Status along with supporting documentation. The documentation must include proof of economic backwardness, such as a recent income tax return, bank statements, and/or property ownership records. Once the application is received, it will be reviewed by the Central Government Office and a decision will be made on whether or not to grant EBC status.
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Understanding India’s Economically Backward Classes and the EBC full form is an important step in recognizing the unique challenges faced by these groups. By understanding what EBC stands for, we are better equipped to create meaningful policies that help address the issues of social marginalization and economic inequality facing this population. This can be achieved through targeted initiatives such as job creation, increased access to education, health care benefits, and other forms of assistance that will empower economically backward classes to attain their goals with dignity.